Starting from the GPS global positioning system in the United States, this technology focused on location information has gradually entered people’s field of vision, and has received great attention and rapid development. Positioning technology not only has strategic significance for national security and military development, but also provides a new modern service model based on location information, which brings a fresh user experience by combining with existing business application services. And gradually penetrate into all aspects of people’s daily lives, is becoming an indispensable service in life.
The leap-forward development of the Internet in the past decade has led to the third information industry revolution, but also brought many problems and hidden dangers. The information security and network security issues are a clear example. Especially with the popularization and development of mobile broadband access technology, the security risks of wireless broadband networks are even more worrying to the relevant government regulatory authorities and enterprises. In this context, considering the characteristics and security protection requirements of wireless broadband networks, the location-based security protection technology generated by the combination of location technology and network security technology has emerged as the times require, and it will have broad development space and application. prospect.
2 positioning technology
2.1 GPS positioning technology
The GPS system can be said to be the earliest, most mature and widely used positioning technology. The full name of GPS in English is “Navigation Satellite Timing Ranging / Global Position System”. The United States has been developing GPS systems since the 1970s. This 20-year, costing 20 billion US dollars. The system was completed in 1994. The system provides location information services from 24 satellite constellations in space. The 24 satellites are evenly distributed over six orbital planes, orbiting the Earth at 11 hours and 58 minutes. The orbital inclination to the Earth’s equatorial plane is 55°. The purpose of this layout is to ensure that at least four satellites can be observed at any time, anywhere in the world.
The GPS system is a new generation satellite navigation and positioning system with all-round real-time three-dimensional navigation and positioning capabilities in sea, land and air. Its positioning error can be controlled at 10m. After more than ten years of use by many professional departments around the world, GPS has remarkable features such as all-weather, high-precision, automation and high efficiency. Today, the size of the GPS client receiver is shrinking, the accuracy of the client is getting higher and higher, and even in some high-end mobile phones, notebook computers and other electronic products. The popularity of GPS clients has accelerated the application of GPS positioning technology in the commercial field. While creating huge commercial profits, it is also gradually changing the lifestyle of modern human beings.
2.2 Mobile positioning technology
The United States Communications Commission (FCC) passed the Enhanced 911 Act in 1996 (revised again in 1999), requiring mobile operators to know the geographic location of each handset (with an error of 50 to 100 m). If any mobile phone calls the US emergency service number 911, the government must know its location, even if the user does not know where he is. This FCC bill greatly promotes the development of mobile positioning technology and related service business research.
The arrival of the 3G era has opened a new chapter for the development of mobile positioning technology. With the increase of data transmission capabilities, the popularity of terminal multimedia capabilities and the emergence of built-in GPS solutions in terminal chips, there are fewer and fewer restrictions on mobile positioning technologies. At present, there are four main types of 3G mobile positioning technologies commonly used in the world, namely network-based CELL-ID, TOA/TDOA positioning technology, terminal-based OTDOA positioning technology, and A-GPS positioning technology that mixes networks and terminals.
The rapid development of mobile positioning technology and the rapid growth of the number of mobile users around the world have also provided unprecedented development opportunities and extremely attractive market prospects for the location based service (LBS) based on user location.
2.3 Indoor positioning technology
Even though GPS systems and many mobile location technologies have achieved great success in outdoor location applications, they are found in complex indoor environments such as airport halls, showrooms, warehouses, supermarkets, libraries, underground parking lots, mines, etc. The performance is not very satisfactory. Taking the GPS system as an example, in the indoor positioning, the positioning failure or the positioning error is often too large due to the inability to receive the satellite signal, so that the system cannot be used normally. In order to make up for the blank of indoor positioning, a variety of novel indoor positioning technologies have emerged, including indoor GPS positioning technology, indoor wireless positioning technology (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, RFID, light tracking, ultrasound, infrared , ultra-wideband, wireless sensors, etc.) and computer vision positioning technology.
Although the commercial application of indoor positioning technology is in its infancy, with the continuous advancement and development of technology and the combination of existing positioning technology and commercial services, it will be able to create new markets and business opportunities, and its related locations. The service business will also be deeply rooted in people’s lives.
GPS locator features
3 Application of positioning technology in network security
With the introduction of 802.11n and Mesh technologies, wireless local area networks (WLANs), as an emerging means of Internet broadband access, are gradually changing the traditional fixed broadband-based Internet access methods. Get rid of the shackles of the network cable, people can connect to the Internet through any portable terminal equipment such as laptops, netbooks, smart phones, etc., in any place where WLANs are deployed, such as libraries, shopping malls, cafes, restaurants and other public places and office buildings. Such office space greatly meets the urgent needs of users to access the Internet anytime, anywhere. The application of centralized wireless LAN architecture greatly reduces the cost and simplifies the tasks of wireless system management, security and upgrade, making the wireless LAN rapidly popularized and rapidly developed.
The wireless local area network uses a wireless channel as a means of information transmission between the terminal and the access point (Access Piont), which is more open and convenient than the traditional fixed line, and brings new challenges to network security. The original fixed-LAN network security technology, strategy and management methods can no longer meet the network security requirements of the new wireless LAN. Especially for enterprises with high demand for network security, how to effectively prevent external illegal access and protect sensitive information while using WLAN to improve office conditions is the focus of current enterprises.
While some standards (such as Wi-Fi WPA2 and 802.11i) offer a new level of wireless security and are supported by new surveillance and intrusion protection tools, the focus of the enterprise has shifted to how traditional cybersecurity and physical security can be achieved. Combined, a new network security solution based on location information is formed. Helping the company balance the contradiction between the necessary checks for this unmanageable freedom while providing mobile Internet services to its employees and visitors.
For example, enterprises deploy wireless LANs in their office buildings to facilitate employee work, but companies do not want people outside the office building to access their own wireless LANs to protect against network attacks and sensitive information theft. For example, enterprises need to implement wireless Internet access for human resources departments because of office needs, but need to restrict wireless access except for human resources departments to prevent others from accessing sensitive information inside the department, such as employee information and performance appraisal information.
This is where the security technology based on location information comes into play: restricting access to the WLAN based on the user’s location information. In addition to adding a layer of physical security protection, location control plus * permission control can also prevent network unit overload (and prevent “denial of service attacks”), and limit where visitors can access the network.
This new cybersecurity idea actually embodies a “physical fence concept, which is based on the geographical location of the visitor and the authorization status, thus limiting the activities of accessing the network. This concept is not difficult to implement technically, as long as The introduction of positioning technology into a wireless local area network can be achieved.
The identity of the user is established based on one or more IDs (such as RFID badge/visitor cards and mobile Wi-Fi devices), and positioning technology is used to determine the location of the specific ID, thus achieving an appropriate network access level to the user. Settings. The basic premise is to create a virtual access fence around each mobile device and each user. It works by tracking the user’s actions in the building, and accepting or denying users access to network resources based on the authorization status and whether they are in the specified allowed area.
“The physical fence can also be set to access wireless LAN and network resources only when the ID card (physical security) meets the requirements for the specified user and his mobile device, which greatly reduces the use of other users’ laptops or The possibility of mobile devices accessing unauthorized information on the web.
“Geographic fences allow visitors to access the WLAN when they are in the conference room with other employees of the company, and the visits after leaving the conference room are rejected. At the same time, “geo fences are also available to visitors. Send an alarm message after leaving the allowed area and terminate the wireless LAN access.
The comprehensive application of security technology based on location information and user and mobile device identification technology takes the protection and intelligent identification of the network to a higher level. “Geo fences create a customizable invisible fence that moves with every mobile device, enabling network administrators to ensure that each device only has access to authorized areas and resources on the network.
GPS locator features
4 Principles of indoor positioning technology
The key to implementing a location-based network security solution is to obtain location information, which requires the help of location technology. “The application scenarios of physical fences are mostly located indoors. Therefore, this paper takes wireless sensor networks as an example to describe the principle of indoor positioning technology.
In the wireless sensor network node location technology, the sensor nodes are divided into a beacon node (Beacon Node) and an unknown node (Unknown Node) according to whether the node knows its own location. The beacon node occupies a small proportion in the network node and is the reference point for the unknown node location. In addition to the beacon node, other sensor nodes are unknown nodes, which calculate their position according to a certain positioning algorithm through the position information of the beacon node.
According to whether the distance between actual nodes is measured during the positioning process, the positioning algorithm is divided into a range-based positioning algorithm and a distance-free positioning algorithm. The mainstream distance-based positioning algorithms include maximum likelihood estimation and circular positioning algorithms. Their principle is that the unknown node obtains the actual distance from the beacon node by measuring the received signal strength (RSS), and then uses its mathematical method to obtain its own position information.
Post time: Aug-16-2019